|来源：原创| 2016-01-21 09:25:04||
Postal Savings for National Development—The Experience of Japan and Future Perspective in a Globalized World
1．1 Postal savings system and the FILP outline of the FILP system before 2001
Economic activities undertaken by governments are called “fiscal policy” and are primarily funded by taxes. In the case of Japan, separate from the tax structure, a mechanism was introduced in the early Meiji Era for custody and management of funds deposited with or gathered by the government. Until 1897, almost all these funds were invested in public bonds. Starting around 1910, as the Japanese economy developed and new government activities became necessary; these funds came to be invested in bonds issued by special-purpose banks. As the areas of fiscal activity expanded, the use of funds gathered by the government served not only as a substitute for government bonds, but also as financial resources for new areas of fiscal activity. In 1951, the Trust Fund Law was enacted and the FILP system was established to provide interest-bearing funds for targeted policy areas as a part of fiscal policy administration. Thus, Japan’s fiscal activities depended upon tax revenues and funds from the FILP.
The FILP system was a unique financing system operated by the government and frequently referred to as the second budget. It has been used by the government as a policy instrument in a manner similar to the regular budget to achieve policy objectives. More specific, the FILP system served as a financial intermediary to the implementation of fiscal policy by pooling funds collected from the ordinary citizens and allocating them to public institutions.
As for the fund raising side of the FILP, main financial resources were funds from postal savings and pension reserves, compulsory deposited in the Trust Fund Bureau of the Ministry of Finance by laws. In addition, the reserves and surpluses of government special accounts as well as premiums of the postal life insurance were also inc